Sherif Farag and Jamal Chaouki, in collaboration with researchers of Queen’s University, published a new research paper entitled “Impact of the Heating Mechanism on the Yield and Composition of Bio-Oil from Pyrolysis of Kraft Lignin” on the Journal of Biomass and Bioenergy.
Below, abstract of the paper is provided:
The aim of this work is to differentiate between the yield and composition of bio-oils obtained from microwave and conventional pyrolysis of kraft lignin. Four different conditions were performed, microwave and conventional pyrolysis with and without mixing the raw material with a strong microwave receptor. The key findings of this work include that applying microwaves in pyrolysis applications leads to preserving the structure of the obtained products, which consequently enhances the product selectivity. As a result, the liquid product from the pyrolysis of lignin contains 40% more chemicals, and 27% less water than that of the conventional pyrolysis. The impact of electromagnetic waves on the quantitative aspect is not considerable as the difference between the liquid yields from both techniques is slight. Increasing the heating rate and/or the residence time, particularly in conventional pyrolysis, makes secondary reactions play a vital role in decomposing and/or combining the obtained aromatic hydrocarbons.
The principal anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the energy production from fossil fuels. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) 2: 78% of human emissions of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil. Other sources include cement production (7%), refineries (6%), iron and steel industries (5%) and petrochemical industries (3%).
Click to read the article (in French)
Sepehr Hamzehlouia, doctoral student in chemical engineering, won the contest “Pitch-nous ta techno!” presented by Univalor, in collaboration with polymtl.
Mr. Hamzehlouia is working on a technique to improve the effectiveness of catalytic reactions for the production of syngas, under the supervision of professors Jamal Chaouki and Robert Legros. He won an award of $ 300 and the accompaniment of Univalor for the marketing of his technology.
The 5th international Congress on Green Process Engineering was held in Mont Tremblant, Quebec, Canada during June 19-24, 2016.
Professor Jamal Chaouki delivered a plenary speech entitled “Improving Resource Efficiency to Address Climate Change by Observing Nature” that was co-authored by Jocelyn Doucet, a former PEARL member.
Drs. Mohammad Latifi, Abdelmajid Rakib, Pierred Sauriol, Jaber Shabanian and Jamal Chaouki presented their research on “Co-Combustion of Coal and a ReEngineered Feedstock for Emissions Reduction”.
In collaboration with researchers of Laval University, Mohammad Latifi co-authored in publication of a research article entitled “Ionic-liquid Collectors for Rare-Earth Minerals Flotation—Case of Tetrabutylammonium Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-Phosphate for Monazite and Bastnäsite Recovery” on the Journal of Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects.
Below, abstract of the paper are provided:
Application of tetrabutylammonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate ([N4444][DEHP]), a room temperature ionic liquid (IL), as an aqueous collector for flotation of model monazite and bastnäsite minerals was investigated through micro-flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ionic liquid was shown to have superior performance to float both model rare-earth (RE) minerals as compared with calcite, dolomite and quartz minerals as typical gangue minerals. Parallel to this, micro-flotation tests of a rare-earth ore containing bastnäsite and monazite minerals were found in line with [N4444][DEHP] stronger collecting power towards RE model minerals even outperforming hydroxamic acid-containing collectors. With regard to the mineral surface chemistry, zeta potential measurements, FTIR characterization and XPS analysis, it was established that [N4444][DEHP] uptake on bastnäsite and monazite surfaces was via chemisorption involving specifically the PO and PO groups of the IL anionic moiety. IL anionic and cationic interactions during RE mineral flotation were rationalized in terms of an inner synergistic pathway: IL anionic moiety chemisorbing on bastnäsite and monazite surfaces prompting uptake of cationic moiety via electrostatic attraction and/or via hydrophobic chain interactions of the cation alkyl chains with the chemisorbed IL anionic layer. Finally, for calcite as the most responsive among gangue minerals, the characterization techniques divulged the weaker IL-surface interactions. Hence, this investigation opens up new prospects for more selective ionic-liquid collectors to be used in the flotation of RE minerals.
It is our pleasure to announce the recent publication by Jaber Shabanian and Jamal Chaouki in Powder Technology. An in-depth study was carried out with the help of the radioactive particle tracking technique while adopting a polymer coating approach to increase the level of IPFs in a bed of fresh sugar beads. This helped highlighting the effect of IPFs on solids motion in a bubbling gas-solid fluidized bed. Experimental results showed that the quality of solids mixing decreased with the level of cohesive IPFs in the bed. In addition, by calculating the idle time for systems with varying degrees of IPFs and resembling the agglomeration process to a reaction network, i.e., the idle time represents the effective reaction time and all reactions follow the elementary rate law, we could provide a fundamental understanding about why the agglomeration process, which normally occurs for beds approaching complete defluidization at elevated temperature, is an auto-accelerated phenomenon.
Professor Jamal Chaouki was chair of the FLUIDIZATION XV conference that was held in Montebello, Quebec, Canada during May 22-27, 2016. Besides, members of the PEARL presented a number of research articles at the conference:
- Hamed Nasri Lari, Jason R. Tavares, Jamal Chaouki, “De-Agglomeration of Nanoparticles in an Impactor-Assisted Fluidized Bed”
- Jaber Shabanian, Jamal Chaouki, “Performance Evaluation of Different Approaches for Early Detection of Defluidization”
- Jaber Shabanian, Jamal Chaouki, “Similarities Between Gas-Solid Fluidization in the Presence of Interparticle Forces at High Temperature and Induced by a Polymer Coating Approach
- Mohammad Latifi, Jamal Chaouki, “Induction Heating Fluidized Bed reactor for Coal-Based Cofiring Tests”
- Said Samih, Jamal Chaouki, “Catalytic Ash Free Coal Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Thermogravimetric Analyzer”
- Sajjad Habibzadeh, Jamal Chaouki and et al. “Conformal Multilayer Coating on Fine Silica Microspheres by Atmospheric Pressure Fluidized Bed Chemical Vapor Deposition”
- Sajjad Habibzadeh, Jamal Chaouki and et al. “Surface Engineering and Vapor Phase technologies for Coating and Functionalizing Complex Objects and Small Particles”
- Samira Aghaee Sarbarze, Mohammad Latifi, Jamal Chaouki, “Fluidization of Cohesive Nanoparticles With a New Pulsation Technique”
- Samira Aghaee Sarbarze, Mohammad Latifi, Jamal Chaouki, “Gas-phase Carbon Coating of Cathode Material of Rechargeable Batteries”
The FLUIDIZATION XV conference was held in Montebello, Quebec, Canada during May 22-27, 2016. The conference was chaired by Dr. Jamal Chaouki of Polytechnique Montreal and co-chaired by Dr. Franco Berruti (from Western University), Dr. Xiaoto (Tony) Bi (PEARL’s alumnus from University of British Colombia) and Dr. Ray Cocco (from Particulate Solid Research Inc.).
About 200 researchers and engineers from industries, academia and research centers from around the world participated in the conference where research topics related to fluidization were presented in 10 categories:
- Fluidization of irregular shape particles
- Micro-fluidized bed reactors
- Clean energy processes
- Coating technologies and fluidized nanoparticles
- Chemical looping combustion (CLC)
- Thermal and catalytic cracking
- Polymerization processes
Mai Attia, Sherif Farag, Sajjad Habibzadeh, Sepehr Hamzehlouia and Jamal Chaouki recently published their article entitled “Fast Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Production of Energy and Chemicals: A Critical Review” on the Journal of Current Organic Chemistry.
Below, abstract of the paper are provided:
As a consequence of the shortage of traditional resources and escalating environmental constraints, the feedstocks for the production of energy and chemicals are swiftly changing. Biomass has received remarkable attention from both academia and industries as it is the most promising feedstock for these applications. Understanding the conversion mechanisms of such renewable low-value material to value-added products would lead to providing insights to enhance the product yield and/or quality and, in turn, help the new products compete with the traditional ones. In this regard, this paper provides an updated review on the processing of biomass for the production of valuable products that could replace a part of the fossil fuel-based energy and chemicals. The common technologies that are performed in the conversion processes are demonstrated, and the thermochemical technique is emphasized. Several chemical reactors and their processes for fast pyrolysis applications are presented. The organic chemistry of pyrolysis of a biomass plant and its three constituents (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) is debated. The effect of the heating mechanism, process parameters, loading of catalyst and other aspects are discussed. Eventually, the economics aspect of fast pyrolysis of biomass is evaluated.